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Our Services

Time Study & Time Standards

"Conduct analyses for class action lawsuits in off-the-clock work (pre-post shift/break analysis, bag checks/security screening, pre-inspection, boot up/shut down). Perform time and motion studies to develop time standards (labor standards), improve inefficient methods, and eliminate delays".

  • Overview    
  • Why JFAssociates, Inc.?   
  • Specific Services    

Conducting a Time Analysis

What is a time analysis?

A time analysis is conducted to determine the amount of time it takes individuals to perform tasks. The process of conducting a time analysis consists of 5 distinct phases:

Requirement Analysis

  • Obtain the client requirements
  • Obtain information including tasks performed, start and end times, number of employees, number of shifts, etc.
  • Perform Pre-Site visit
  • Develop an experimental plan to collect data

Data collection

Site visit where video and other data are collected over a period of few days

Data Analysis

  • Job is broken down job into activities (or tasks) with discrete start and end points, e.g. Receive supplies, don smock, doff smock, don gloves, doff gloves, Log-In Windows, Log-Out Windows, and Log-In Programs.
  • Video analysis is conduct video analysis to obtain task times in fractions of a second
  • Calculate walk times
  • Consolidate data for analysis

Statistical Analysis

  • Develop summary data statistics for all elemental times
  • Develop comparative data statistics


  • Document required/optional (essential/non-essential; unique/non-unique) activities
  • Document start and end points of pre- and/or post-shift activities
  • Document time duration for each task performed independently or in combination
  • Document time duration for all (required or optional) tasks performed at pre- and/or post shift and pre- and/or post meal break
  • Document any additional information required

Setting Time Standards

What are time and motion studies?

Time and motion studies are conducted to document and improve inefficient methods, eliminate or reduce avoidable delays in the workplace, and develop time standards.

What is a time study?

Time studies identify the time required by a qualified and well trained person working at a normal pace to do a specific task.

What is a motion/method study?

Motion/method studies are the analysis of body motions employed in doing a job in order to find the most efficient method in terms of time and effort. 

Advantages of Conducting a Time and Motion Study

  • Eliminate or reduce ineffective movements
  • Facilitate and speed effective movements
  • Eliminate unnecessary work
  • Determine schedules and planning work
  • Determine standard cost and aid budget making
  • Estimate the cost of a product
  • Determine machine effectiveness
  • Determine time standards for establishing wage incentive
  • Determine time standards for estimating labor costs
Why JFAssociates, Inc.?   

JFAssociates, Inc. Achievements:

  • JFAssociates, Inc. has conducted time studies in over 100 FLSA claims and cases, working with leading law firms throughout the country.
  • JFAssociates, Inc. has provided expert consultation for a number of “Fortune 500” companies.
  • JFAssociates, Inc. results have been used in a number of cases litigated in the Supreme Court with favorable results.
  • JFAssociates, Inc. has an extensive record of favorable case outcomes.

The Industrial Engineers at JFAssociates, Inc.:

  • Are known nationally and internationally for their research and work in time and motion studies.
  • Provided consultation expertise in a number of settlements, arbitration, and mediation.
  • Provided expert witness services to law firms and companies in a number of litigation and class action case.
  • Experienced in a broad range of industry (including many fortune 500 companies) and law firms:

Aerospace Automobile

Call centers Computer chip manufacturing

Electronic manufacturing Entertainment

Food processing Healthcare

Parcel and post Pharmaceutical

Plastics manufacturing Restaurants

Retail Security

Small and large assembly Warehouse

Foundries Financial institutions

Specific Services    

JFAssociates' Approach to FLSA Projects:

  • Design the time analysis study
  • Collect time analysis data
  • Prepare deliverables for client as needed (declarations, depositions, reports, presentations, etc.)
  • Provide expert consultation and witness testimony

Pre & Post Shift Work

  • Determine time recording (“clocking”) procedures specific to departments within each facility
  • Evaluate Bootup-Shutdown Process and Work from Home (WfM) Login-Logoff Process
  • Breakdown activities into specific elements
  • Determine elements that are performed “off the clock”
  • Conduct time analysis of elements

Donning & Doffing

  • Conduct time analysis: items donned/doffed, walk distances (departmental basis), sanitation procedures, and washing procedures

Security & Bag Checks

  • Determine security procedures specific to facility
  • Analyze procedures on an elemental basis and provide time values

Misclassification of Employees

  • Consider all job tasks completed by workers allegedly misclassified
  • Determine allocation of exempt work vs. non-exempt work
  • Determine status servers as tipped vs. non-tipped for the recent 80/20 rule

Traditional Time and Motion Studies

  • Establish Time Standards
  • Establish Labor Standards

JFAssociates, Inc. can provide time and motion studies to establish production standards. The process consists of JFAssociates, Inc. engineers conducting an initial survey that entails analyzing the value added (VA) and non-value added (NVA) activities. If there is a need to redefine or retrain operators, JFAssociates, Inc. will help in achieving this. After implementing the new and improved method of performing the tasks, all the tasks are verified and data are collected. Different techniques are used to analyze and evaluate the unavoidable delays. The data collected is then used to establish production standards for each process.